Diagnostics

Master Health Check

Jubilee Hospital offers comprehensive screening programme called JUBILEE MASTER HEALTH CHECK UP. The commercial or the retail cost of the master health check will be about Rs.4800/- is done in any other hospital or diagnostic centre in Hyderabad. As a social responsibility we at Jubilee Hospital have offered the MHC for a price of Rs.999/- only.

As age progresses the human body is prone to various disease processes. Jubilee Master Health Check goes by the adage “prevention is better than cure’. With the Jubilee Master Health Check we aim to offer a comprehensive range of tests which cover the most important aspects of adult health and identify the disease process in the initial stages. Identification of the disease process in the initial stages gives the patient and doctor an opportunity to treat the condition aggressively and appropriately and prevent long term damage. This reduces the long time spent in hospital and in rehabilitation after discharge from hospital and the time taken of work and the loss of wages. This also prevent the whole lot of syndrome or stigma associated with visiting and getting admitted in hospital for treatment. Most of the diseases are “Silent”, we often do not have any early symptoms, especially Diabetes and Heart Diseases, which can seriously impair normal life and can be quite debilitating, if neglected. Hence regular screening of risk factors is a must. Fortunately, these diseases can be easily prevented and even fully cured if detected early. All that you need to do is to make slight modifications in your life style. Regular health checkups coupled with these lifestyle changes, go a long way in prevention of these ailments.

The components of the Jubilee Master Health Check help identify various chronic disease conditions. Jubilee Master Health Check contains the following tests Each of the above parameters identifies and helps prevent chronic disease conditions

  • CBP
  • Lipid Profile
  • LFT
  • Kidney Function
  • Thyroid Profile
  • Serum Calcium
  • Serum Uric Acid
  • Serum Electrolytes
  • Iron Deficiency Profile
  • HbA1c
  • CUE
  • ECG
  • BUN/ Serum Creatinine Ratio

Clinical Laboratory Medicine

At Jubilee Hospital we have a fully equipped laboratory & all lab investigations such as Micro biology, Biochemistry, Pathology, Histopathology, Serology, Hormonal Assays etc. are performed on highly sophisticated equipment.

There are three main disciplines within Pathology (Clinical Laboratory Medicine).

Blood Sciences

Biochemistry is the study of the biochemical mechanisms of the body in relation to disease.

Haematology is the study of blood to identify blood disorders and abnormalities of blood coagulation.

Transfusion involves the identification of blood groups and testing the compatibility of donor blood with that of patients.

Microbiology
Cellular Pathology
Histology is the study of the structure of tissues and organs.

Cytology is the microscopic study of cells. Samples received include fluids and needle aspirates.

Andrology is the study of sperm to determine male fertility and confirm infertility following vasectomy.

Radiology

Radiology provides Diagnostic and Therapeutic Imaging Services. Images are obtained using a wide variety of specialist equipment and techniques, operated by a skilled team of Radiographers, Radiologists and Assistant Practitioners.

Plain Film Radiology (X-Rays)

X-rays are generated using electricity, tungsten and a glass tube, similar to a light bulb. When X-rays pass through objects, they are absorbed. An X-ray detector is placed behind the part to be X-rayed. The more X-rays which pass through the body and reach the detector, the darker the image, the less x-rays which reach the detector, the brighter the image. Hard, bone like structures show up white on an x-ray, soft tissue areas show up grey and parts filled with air, show up black.

Fluoroscopy

Unlike a conventional x-ray image, fluoroscopy uses X-rays to image in real time. This allows assessment of function and structure. A good example of this is in Barium Studies. Barium is a dense white liquid which block x-rays. Because of this feature, it is shown on X-ray as bright white. It can be used to assess conditions of the intestinal tract and using fluoroscopy can be visualized as it passes through.

Ultrasound

Ultrasound uses sound waves to produce images of organs and structures inside the body. The sound wave is reflected back to the transducer (probe) and this creates an image on the TV screen. Liquid Gel on the skin surface ensures that none of the sound waves are lost.

CT Scan (Computerised Tomography)

CT is a very specialised type of X-ray examination. A Tomogram effectively means ‘a slice’ or a cross section. As one organ lies in front of another in the body, it would be difficult to see everything at the same time. If the part in question and the machine producing the X-rays are moving at the same time, the structures behind and in front of the part of interest will be blurred out, leaving a clear picture. CT scanners work by have an X-Ray tube which rotates around the patient at high speed. The patient lies on a bed which moves through the X-rays as they rotate and this produces images of the internal organs. Pictures produced can be back to front, side to side and top to bottom so that every corner of the body can be seen.

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging uses a very large magnet to produce images of the body. The magnet is called a Superconducting Magnet and is kept energised constantly by electricity. As electricity produces heat, it is necessary to keep the magnet cool, so it is surrounded by a jacket of helium and Nitrogen gas. The human body contains lots of water. MRI relies on the Hydrogen atoms of the water to interact with the magnetic field and produce an image.

Nuclear Medicine

Nuclear Medicine is an imaging modality that looks at the function of an organ rather than the anatomy.Most of the tests involve an injection similar to a blood test to administer a very slightly radioactive substance that goes to the organ of interest and emits gamma rays. After a time interval a Gamma Camera can detect the gamma radiation emitted and using computer software can be manipulated into images or statistics as required. Patients rarely get undressed as Gamma rays are less affected by passage through clothing than x-rays, the images tend to be unaffected by clothes and fastenings.The procedures are routine, safe and the radiation dose is not excessive.

Angiography and Intervention

Angiography and intervention are examinations which use real time x-rays and conventional X-rays to image both organs and blood vessels throughout the body. Very intricate procedures can be performed through a small needle, using wires and tubes. In some cases this can avoid the need for invasive surgery

Complete Blood Picture (CBP)

If a patient is having symptoms associated with anaemia, such as fatigue or weakness, or has an infection, inflammation, bruising, or bleeding, then the doctor may order a FBC to help diagnose the cause. Significant increases in WBCs may help confirm that an infection is present and suggest the need for further testing to identify its cause. Decreases in the number ofRBCs (anaemia) can be further evaluated by changes in size or shape of the RBCs to help determine if the cause might be decreased production, increased loss, or increased destruction of RBCs. A platelet count that is low or extremely high may need further investigation.

Many conditions will result in increases or decreases in the cell populations. Some of these conditions may require treatment, while others will resolve on their own. Some diseases, such as cancer (and chemotherapy treatment), can affect bone marrow production of cells, increasing the production of one cell at the expense of others or decreasing overall cell production. Some medications can decrease WBC counts, and some vitamin and mineral deficiencies can cause anaemia. The FBC test may be requested by the doctor on a regular basis to monitor these conditions and drug treatments.

The CBP is used as a broad screening test to check for such disorders as anaemia, infection, and many other diseases. It is actually a panel of tests that examines different parts of the blood and includes the following:

  • WBC - White Blood Cell Count is a count of the actual number of white blood cells per volume of blood. Both increases and decreases can be significant.
  • White Blood Cell differential looks at the types of white blood cells present. There are five different types of white blood cells, each with its own function in protecting us from infection. The differential classifies a person's white blood cells into each type: neutrophils (also known as PMNs), lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.
  • RBC - Red Blood Cell (RBC) count is a count of the actual number of red blood cells per volume of blood. Both increases and decreases can point to abnormal conditions.
  • HB - Haemoglobin measures the amount of oxygen-carrying protein in the blood.
  • Haematocrit measures the amount of space red blood cells take up in the blood. It is reported as a percentage (0 to 100) or a proportion (0 to 1).
  • Platelet Count : The platelet count is the number of platelets in a given volume of blood. Both increases and decreases can point to bleeding or bone marrow disorders.
  • Mean platelet volume (MPV) is a machine-calculated measurement of the average size of your platelets. New platelets are larger, and an increased MPV occurs when increased numbers of platelets are being produced.
  • Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measurement of the average size of your RBCs. The MCV is elevated when your RBCs are larger than normal (macrocytic), for example in anaemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency or folic acid deficiency. When the MCV is decreased, your RBCs are smaller than normal (microcytic), which may indicate iron deficiency anaemia, inflammation or occasionally thalassaemias.
  • Mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) is a calculation of the amount of oxygen-carrying haemoglobin inside your RBCs. Since macrocytic RBCs are larger than either normal or microcytic RBCs, they would also tend to have higher MCH values.
  • Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is a calculation of the concentration of haemoglobin inside the RBCs. Decreased MCHC values (hypochromia) are seen in conditions where the haemoglobin is abnormally diluted inside the red cells, such as in iron deficiency anaemia, long standing inflammation or thalassaemia. Increased MCHC values (hyperchromia) are seen in conditions where the haemoglobin is abnormally concentrated inside the red cells, such as in hereditary or autoimmune spherocytosis.
  • Red cell distribution width (RDW) is a calculation of the variation in the size of your RBCs. In some anaemias, such as iron deficiency or pernicious anaemia, the amount of variation (anisocytosis) in RBC size (along with variation in shape – poikilocytosis) causes an increase in the RDW.

Lipid Profile

Lipid profile contains Total Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, Triglycerides, and Total Cholesterol/HDL Ratio. This profile identifies the high cholesterol which can cause chronic disease conditions like atherosclerosis, heart disease (CAD – Coronary Artery Disease), brain stroke (CVA= Cerebra Vascular accident) acute pancreatitis etc. Controlling the cholesterol in long term prevents atherosclerosis and CAD, CVD etc.

However, if the test is drawn as part of a total lipid profile, it requires a 12-hour fast (no food or drink, except water) Cholesterol Cholesterol is a form of fat that's not all bad -- a certain amount is essential for life. Cholesterol helps provide stability to the outer membranes of our bodies' cells.

The results of this test can identify certain generic diseases and can determine approximate risks for cardiovascular disease, certain forms of pancreatitis, and other diseases.

This test is used to identify dyslipedemis (various disturbances of cholesterol and triglyceride levels), many forms of which are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease and rarely pancreatitis.

A total cholesterol reading can be used to assess an individual's risk for heart disease, however, it should not be relied upon as the only indicator. The individual components that make up total cholesterol reading –LDL, HDL and VLDL -are also important in measuring risk.

For instance, someone's total cholesterol may be high, but this may be due to very high HDL ("good cholesterol") cholesterol levels,—which can actually help prevent heart disease (the test is mainly concerned with high LDL, or "bad cholesterol" levels). So, while a high total cholesterol level may help give an indication that there is a problem with cholesterol levels, the components that make up total cholesterol should also be measured.

1) As part of a cardiovascular risk assessment

Cardiovascular disease means disease of the heart, such as a heart attack, or of the arteries, such as strokes. These conditions are partly due to laying down of excess cholesterol in the artery walls (known as atherosclerosis, or “furring up of the arteries”). The balance of different cholesterol fractions measured as part of the lipid profile (e.g. "bad" non-HDL-C vs "good" HDL-C) can influence how fast and extensive this process is. Therefore, the commonest reason to measure a person’s lipid profile is to help estimate their risk of developing cardiovascular disease in the future. This then helps with decisions about lifestyle changes and medical treatments to reduce future risk. In the UK, most doctors use a “risk calculator” (QRISK2) which uses parts of the lipid profile along with other known risk factors (such as age, gender, smoking, blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and certain chronic illnesses) for this purpose.

2) In cases of pancreatitis Pancreatitis is a serious medical condition in which the pancreas becomes inflamed. It has many causes, one of which is high levels of triglycerides in the blood. Therefore, if you ever develop pancreatitis, your lipid profile would usually be checked to look for elevated triglycerides. If found, these can be reduced effectively by lifestyle changes and medical treatments.

3) To monitor response to treatment

If you are prescribed lipid-modifying treatments, for example to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease or pancreatitis, your lipid profile may be checked periodically to determine if the treatment is working adequately.

Liver Function Test (LFT)

The most common sections of the test are

  • Bilirubin
  • Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
  • Aspartarte aminotransferase (AST)
  • ALkaline Phosphatase (ALP)
  • Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT or ‘Gamma GT’)
  • Albumin
  • Clotting studies, i.e. prothrombin time (PT) or international normalised ratio (INR)

Renal Function Test

Visit Jubilee Hospital for a kidney test if you have:

  • diabetes
  • high blood pressure
  • blood or protein in your urine with no known cause
  • cardiovascular disease (conditions that affect the heart, arteries and veins, such as coronary heart disease or stroke)
  • heart failure
  • kidney stones
  • an enlarged prostate
  • a close relative with kidney disease
  • if you are prescribed certain medicines known to cause kidney problems, including lithium or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen
  • Kidney symptoms to look out for
  • It's also important to see your doctor for a kidney test if you already have symptoms of kidney disease. These include:
  • producing more or less urine than usual
  • feeling more tired than usual
  • loss of appetite
  • shortness of breath
  • feeling generally unwell for more than a few days

Thyroid Function Test

The usual blood tests done for thyroid function are TSH, T4 and sometimes T3. Usually the ‘free’ or active portion of T4 and T3 is measured (i.e., FT4 and FT3).

TSH and FT4

  • If the TSH level is high and the FT4 result is low this suggests an under-active thyroid (hypothyroidism) that requires treatment.
  • If the TSH level is low and the FT4 result is high this suggests an over-active thyroid (hyperthyroidism) that requires treatment.
  • If the TSH level is slightly raised but the FT4 level is still within the normal reference range this is called subclinical hypothyroidism or mild thyroid failure. It may develop into overt or clinical hypothyroidism; an additional test for thyroid antibodies will help to determine the risk. Some people with subclinical hypothyroidism, particularly those whose TSH level is greater than 10 mU/l, may benefit from treatment with levothyroxine.
  • A low TSH with a low FT4 may be a result of a failure of the pituitary gland (secondary hypothyroidism caused by hypopituitarism) or a response to a significant non-thyroid illness

FT3

This is only used in testing for hyperthyroidism or assessing its severity.

Thyroid Antibodies

If the initial thyroid test results show signs of thyroid dysfunction and if there is a suspicion of an autoimmune thyroid disease, one or more thyroid antibody tests may be ordered. The main thyroid antibodies are thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb),thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TSHR Ab formerly known as TRAb). There is no standard reference range for thyroid antibodies because this depends on many different factors.

Serum Electrolytes

Electrolytes are electrically charged minerals that help move nutrients into and wastes out of the body’s cells, maintain a healthy water balance and help stabilize the body’s acid level. A blood test that measures the main electrolytes in the body—sodium, potassium and chloride—can be used to evaluate symptoms of heart disease and monitor the effectiveness of treatments for high blood pressure, heart failure and liver and kidney disease.

Sodium

Sodium is regulated by the kidneys and adrenal glands. Low sodium levels are caused by kidney disease and adrenal disease, diuretics, diarrhea, and occasionally conditions that cause fluid buildup in the body; the most common cause of high sodium is dehydration. Normal sodium levels are 136 to 142 mmol/L.

Potassium

Potassium concentrations that are too high can be due to kidney disease or drugs that can decrease potassium excretion from the body. Low potassium can be a consequence of using certain diuretics or of dehydration. Normal potassium levels are 3.5 to 5.0 mmol/L.

Chloride

Chloride levels usually fluctuate with sodium levels. Low chloride levels can occur with chronic lung disease, prolonged vomiting, and with loss of acid from the body, called metabolic alkalosis. High chloride levels may result from dehydration, but can also occur with other problems that cause high blood sodium, such as kidney disease. The normal range of chloride levels is 98 to 108 mmol/L.

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a simple test that can be used to check your heart's rhythm and electrical activity. Sensors attached to the skin are used to detect the electrical signals produced by your heart each time it beats. An ECG may be requested by a heart specialist (cardiologist) or any doctor who thinks you might have a problem with your heart, including your GP. There are three main types of ECG:

  • Resting ECG – carried out while you're lying down in a comfortable position
  • Stress or exercise ECG – carried out while you're using an exercise bike or treadmill
  • Ambulatory ECG – the electrodes are connected to a small portable machine worn at your waist so your heart can be monitored at home for one or more days

Complete Urine Examination (CUE)

It is a very simple screening test which is very valuable in identifying the kidney and urinary conditions at an early stage. For example blood in urine points towards surgical urological conditions like Renal Stones, Cysts or Tumors of the renal tract and kidney. Protein in urine gives an early indication at various disease processes like Nephrotic Syndrome, kidney damage due to diabetes etc.

Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c)

HbA1c is now accepted as a standard tool for the diagnosis and also as a monitoring tool for diabetes. Earlier it was the Fasting and POST prandial blood test that were used to diagnose diabetes. Our Jubilee Master Health Check includes Hba1c for the diagnosis of Diabetes at an early stage. By measuring glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), clinicians are able to get an overall picture of what our average blood sugar levels have been over a period of weeks/months. For people with diabetes this is important as the higher the HbA1c, the greater the risk of developing diabetes-related complications.